Cultural Transmission and Mechanisms of Fictionalisation and Mythification in oral Narratives

Neagota, Bogdan (Articol)

“In this theoretical approach on the narrative traditions, we adopted a methodologically convergent perspective on the problem of the genesis of myth and fairy-tale, both originated in the belief-tale, seen as the tale with zero mythic-fictional degree, narrating a level fracture (IInd scheme). Contrary to Propp, we do not argue for the historic anteriority of archaic initiation rites for mythical ritualized belief-tales, nor for those fictional de-ritualized (the fairy-tales); we neither argue for their structural simultaneity (Lévi-Strauss). What we do is trying to give an answer in the terms of a cognitive anteriority and of a mythic-fictional pre-eminence. Our solution takes its point of departure in the idea that there exists a plurality of mythical-fictional worlds (Eco, Pavel, Meinong, Parsons) and of logical worlds (Kripke), as well as in the meta-historic approach (in terms of a re-defined historicity) of the relation between the immediate world and the other possible worlds. The process of mythification/fictionalisation is expressed by three inter-dependent themes: the immediate experience of a sacred reality (Eliade) and the mental experience of the mind game type (Culianu), the theme of ideal objects (Culianu) / fictional (Pavel) and, last but not least, the explanation of the genesis of cultural facts (as well as the religious ones). In this context, we analyse the fictional mechanisms through which the belief-tale passes from the condition of object of experience to that of ideal/fictional object, transgressing its epistemic coordinates. It is a reversible process, meaning that the mythical-fictional cycle, brought to a certain degree of mythic and fictional formalization, returns to the initial point, projecting over immediate experience the mental patterns of the imaginary. The following topics are addressed: the relationship rite – myth – fairy-tale and the hypothesis of the origin of the fairy-tale (Propp and Meletinski), the problem of the experiential origin of folk facts and of the mythic-symbolic conversion of reality (Eliade), the genesis of ideal objects (as mythic-narrative traditions), the cognitive rules and their transmission (Culianu), the structure of fictional objects, the ontologic status of mythic-fictional beings, the fictional situs of the belief-tale (Propp), the mythical-fictional veridicity and credibility (Propp, Pavel, Searle & Gabriel, Eco, Todorov), the fictional simulation and transvesting (Pavel), the fictionalisation of myth and the plurality of competing ontologic paysages (Pavel, Eliade). The theoretic-literary model we proposed is situated at the crossroads between proppian morphology, hermeneutical thesis Mircea Eliade’s, a semiology of cognitive inspiration (Ioan Petru Culianu) and an integrationist theory of the fictional (Pavel).”

Cuvinte cheie: belief-tale, cultural transmission, Experience, fairy-tale, fictionalisation, mythification, and narrative

Revista de etnografie și folclor / Journal of Ethnography and Folklore

2013, nr. 1-2